Rena’s Memory Model


Rena is my implementation of lox tree-walk interpreter in Rust. I’m rewriting it in Rust to familiarize myself with the borrow checker and the fancy toolchain it offers. In this post, I’ll explain how I implemented a simple environment for the interpreter.


The environment is structured as a vector of hashmaps and is initialized with an empty hashmap to represent the global scope. Every new block in the source code inserts an empty hashmap at the head of the vector and exiting out of a block removes a hashmap from the head. The environment combines these three properties to support nesting and shadowing of values in the memory.

pub struct Environment {
    frame_list: Vec<HashMap<String, Value>>,

pub fn new() -> Environment {
    let mut frames = Vec::new();

    Environment {
        frame_list: frames,

pub fn new_scope(&mut self) {
    self.frame_list.insert(0, HashMap::new());

pub fn exit_scope(&mut self) {

Declaring New Values

When the interpreter encounters a new block in the parsed source code, it first calls new_scope() to initialize a new hashmap for the block. So when new values are declared inside the block, they can be safely inserted in the first hashmap of the vector which represents the innermost scope.

pub fn define(&mut self, name: String, value: Value) -> Result<(), LoxError> {
    if let Some(frame) = self.frame_list.get_mut(0) {
        frame.insert(name, value);
    } else {
        error!("Frame not available.")

Fetching and Assigning Values

fetch() is used to fetch a value from the environment and assign() is used to assign a new value to a predefined key. Both the functions are required to climb up from the starting scope to the global scope until a hashmap containing the given key is found. This is accomplished by iterating through each hashmap in the vector and performing the fetch or assign operation only if a hashmap contains the key. If the key is not found in any hashmap, the value being searched for has not been declared.

For example, to fetch a variable a declared in the global scope and used inside a block statement, the interpreter will first check the first hashmap in the vector (innermost scope) for the variable name and will not find it. So it will proceed to check the second hashmap (global scope) and since this hashmap contains the variable’s key the function will return the value associated with the key.

pub fn fetch(&self, name: String) -> Option<&Value> {
    for frame in &self.frame_list {
        if frame.contains_key(&name) {
            return frame.get(&name);

pub fn assign(&mut self, name: String, value: Value) -> Result<Value, LoxError> {
    for frame in &mut self.frame_list {
        if frame.contains_key(&name) {
            frame.insert(name, value.clone());
            return Ok(value);
    error!("Undefined variable.")

The End

Here’s a pictorial representation of the environment for the source code below. The first element represents the innermost scope and the following elements represent the enclosing outer scopes. scopes3.png

var a = 1;
var b = 2;
    var c = 100;
    print a; // 1
        var d = 4;
            var e = 5;
            c = 3;
            print c; // 3

Compared to the implementation provided in the book, my implementation sits well with the borrow checker and may be more performant and readable as it uses iteration instead of recursion to climb up the nested scopes.

Now, back to hacking :^)


A comment by u/Training-Ad-9425 mentioned that my implementation is inefficient and after referring to the documentation, I realized that inserting and removing an element from the head of a Vec is a \(O(n)\) operation.

To improve on that, I had two options:

  1. Push and pop new scopes at the tail of the vector and reverse the sequence when traversing from inner to outer scope. This would allow new scopes to be added to the environment in \(O(1)\) and traversing will remain to be \(O(n)\).
  2. Replace the environment structure with VecDeque as it supports \(O(1)\) insertion and removal at both ends of the sequence.

I implemented the first option as it would give me a chance to play with iterator’s methods. You can find the update source code in the remote repository linked above.